Sviluppo dell’imprenditorialità immigrata e Relazioni con il territorio ospitante: Il caso italiano

Sonia Caterina Giaccone

Abstract


This study addresses the issue of immigrant entrepreneurship in Italy highlighting the role of the social and economic integration of immigrants in the push towards entrepreneurship. Immigration to the Italian territory is a growing phenomenon for several years and inevitably leads to both social and economic implications. The progressive growth of entrepreneurial initiatives of immigrants makes the study of this phenomenon particularly interesting, especially in view of its impact on the competitive dynamics of domestic firms. In the immigrant entrepreneurship literature, some studies in particular focused on the characteristics of the entrepreneur, others on the framework conditions that encourage entrepreneurship, among which the market, the legislative system, the relational network of the entrepreneur. This study aims to integrate the sociological and business perspective, and examine, through a correlation analysis, the relation existing between social integration in the host country and propensity to entrepreneurship for immigrants. The thesis is that difficulties in social integration can push immigrants toward entrepreneurship, as an opportunity for redemption.


Keywords


Entrepreneurship; immigrants; social integration; new ventwles

Full Text:

PDF (Italiano)

References


Alder P., Kwon S. (2002), “Social capital: prospects for a new concept”, Academy of Management Review, n. 27, pp. 17-41.

Aldrich h., Carte J., Mc Evoy D., anf Velleman P. (1985), “Ethnic residential concentration and the protected market Hypothesis”, Social Forces, vol. 63, n. 4, pp. 996-1009.

Allasino E., Eve M. (2008), “Ceto medio negato? Fenomeni migratori e nuove questioni” in: Bagnasco A. (a cura di) Ceto medio. Perché e come occuparsene, Bologna, il Mulino, pp. 285-322.

Aureli S. (2005), “Gli approcci di studio all’imprenditorialità straniera”, Piccola Impresa/Small Business, vol. 3, pp. 109-148.

Aviram A. (2009), “Socialization for entrepreneurship: the second generation”, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, vol. 14, n. 3, pp. 311-330.

Boissevain J., Grotenbreg H. (1988), “Culture, structure and ethnic enterprise. The Surinamese of Amsterdam”, in Lost illusions. Carribean minorities in Britain and the Netherlands,

Cross and H. Entzinger, H (eds) London: Routledge, pp. 221-249.

Bonacich, E. (1973), “A theory of middleman minorities”, American Sociological Review, vol. 38, n. 5, pp. 583-594.

Bovenkerk F., Ruland L. (1992), “Artisan entrepreneurs: two centuries of Italian immigration to the Netherlands”, International Migration Review, vol. 26, n. 3, pp. 927-939.

Brockhaus R.H. (1982), “The psychology of the entrepreneur”, in Kent C.A., Sexton D.L., Vesper K.H. (eds.), Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs (NJ).

Bruno A.V., Tyebjee T.T. (1982), “The environment for entrepreneurship”, in Kent C.A., Sexton D.l., Vesper K.H. (eds.) Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship”, pp. 288-307, Englewood

Cliffs, NJ. Prentice Hall.

Butler J.S., Greene P.G. (2004), “The minority community as an incubator”, in Butler J.S., Kozmetsky G. (eds.), Immigrant and minority entrepreneurship, Praeger, Westport.

Butler J.S., Kozmetsky G. (eds.)(2004),Immigrant and minority entrepreneurship, Praeger, Westport.

Caritas/Migrantes (2010), Dossier statistico 2010, XX Rapporto.

Carter T., Morrish M., Amoyew B. (2008), “Attracting immigrants to smaller urban and rural communities: lessons learned from the Manitoba Provincial Nominee Program”,International Migration and Integration, n. 9, pp. 161-183.

Centro studi CNA (2011), L’imprenditoria straniera in Italia nel 2010 in cifre.

Centro studi Unioncamere (2011), Rapporto Unioncamere 2011.

Chaganti R., Greene P.G. (2002), “Who are the ethnic entrepreneurs? A study of entrepreneurs-ethnic involvement and business characteristics”, Journal of Small Business Management, vol. 40, n. 2, pp. 126-143.

Clydesale G. (2008), “Business immigrants and the entrepreneurial nexus”, Journal of International Entrepreneurship, n. 6, pp.123-142.

CNEL (Consiglio nazionale dell’economia e del lavoro) (2010), VII Rapporto sugli indici di integrazione degli immigrati in Italia.

Constant A., Zimmermann K.F., (2006), “The making of an entrepreneurs in Germany: are native men and immigrants alike?”, Small Business Economics, vol. 26, n. 3, pp. 279-300.

Davidsson P. (1991), “Continued entrepreneurship. Ability, need, and opportunity as determinants of small firm growth”, Journal of Business Venturing, n. 6, pp. 405-429.

De Clercq D., Honig B. (2011), “Entrepreneurship as an integrating mechanism for disadvantaged persons”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: an International Journal, vol. 23, n. 5-6, pp. 353-372.

Dyer L., Ross C.A. (2003), “Customer communication and the small ethnic firm”, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, vol. 8, n. 1, pp. 19-40.

Fondazione Leone Moressa (2011), Rapporto annuale sull’economia dell’immigrazione, Il Mulino, Bologna.

Gartner W.B. (1985), “A conceptual framework for describing the phenomenon of new venture creation”, Academy of Management Review, vol. 10, n. 4, pp. 696-706.

Gnyawali D.R., Fogel D.S. (1994), “Environments for entrepreneurship development:key dimensions and research implications”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, summer, pp.

-62.

Goodman J.P., Meany J.W., Pate L.E. (1982), “The government as entrepreneur. Industrial development and the creation of new ventures”, in Sexton D.L., Kasarda J.D. (eds), The state

of the art on entrepreneurship, Boston, PSW-Kent.

Greve A., Salaff J.W. (2003), “Social networks and entrepreneurship”, Entrepreneurship,Theory & Practice, vol. 28, n. 1, pp. 1-22.

Greve A., Salaff J.W. (2005), “Social network approach to understand the ethnic economy.A theoretical discourse”, Geojournal, n. 64, pp. 7-16.

Halkias D., Thurman P., Rishi M., Harkiolakis N., Ekonomon L., Caracatsanis S. (2009),“Economic and social characteristics of Albanian immigrant entrepreneurs in Greece”, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, vol. 14, n. 2, pp. 143-164.

Istat (2011), La popolazione straniera residente in Italia.

Kuok-bun, Jin Hui O. (1995), “The many feces of immigrant entrepreneurship” in Cohen R. (ed.), The Cambridge survey of world immigration, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,

pp. 523-531.

Labrianidis L., Hatziprokopiou P. (2010), “Migrant entrepreneurship in Greece: diversity of pathways for emerging ethnic business communities in Thessaloniki”, International

Migration & Integration, vol. 11, pp. 193-217.

Levie G. (2007), “Immigration, in-migration, ethnicity and entrepreneurship in the United Kingdom”, Small Business Economics, vol. 28, pp. 143-169.

Light I. (1972), Ethnic enterprise in America. Business and welfare among Chinese, Japanese and blacks, University of California, Berkley.

Light I. (1979), “Disadvantages minorities in self employment”, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, vol. 20, pp. 31-45.

Light I., Bernard R.B., Kim R. (1999), “Immigrant incorporation in the garment industry of Los Angeles”, International Migration Review, vol. 33, n. 1, pp. 5-25.

Light I., Bhachu P. (eds.) (2004), Immigration and entrepreneurship. Culture, capital and ethnic networks, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick.

Lin X., Tao S. (2012), “Transnational entrepreneurs: characteristics, drivers, and success factors”, Journal of International Entrepreneurship, vol. 10, n. 1, pp. 50-69.

McClelland D.C. (1961), The achieving society, Van Nostrand, Princeton (NJ).

Morris M., Schindehutte M. (2005), “Entrepreneurial values and the ethnic enterprise. An examination of six cultures”, Journal of Small Business Management, vol. 43, n. 4, pp. 453-479.

Newcomer M. (1961), “The little businessman: A study of business proprietors in Poughkeepsie, New York”, Business History Review, vol. 35, n. 4, pp. 477-531.

Phizacklea A., Ram M. (1995), “Ethnic entrepreneurship in comparative perspective”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, vol. 1, n. 1, pp. 48-58.

Portes A., Haller W., Guarnizo L.E. (2002), “Transnational entrepreneurs: the emergence and determinants of an alternative form of immigrant economic adaptation”, American

Sociological Review, n. 67, pp. 278-298.

Portes A., Manning R., (1986), “The immigrant enclave: theory and empirical examples”, in Nagel J., Olzac S., Competitive ethnic relations, Academic Press, Orlando, Florida.

Portes A., Rimbaut R. (2001), Legacies: the story of the immigrant second generation, University of California press and Russel Sage Foundation, Berkley CA.

Portes A., Sensenbrenner J. (1993), “Embeddedness and Immigration: Notes on the Social determinants of economic action”, American Journal of Sociology, vol. 98, n. 6, pp. 1320-1350.

Portes A., Stepick A. (1985), “Unwelcome Immigrants: The Labor Market Experience of 1980 Cuban and Haitian Refugees in South Florida.” American Sociological Review, vol. 50, (August), pp. 493-514.

Rajiman R., Tienda, M. (2000) “Immigrants pathways to business ownership: a comparative ethnic perspective”, International Migration Review, vol. 34, n. 3, pp. 682-706.

Rath J. (2000), Immigrant business. The economic, political and social environment, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan press.

Rath J., Kloosterman R. (2000), “Outsiders’ business: a critical review of research on immigrant entrepreneurship”, International Migration Review, vol. 34, n. 3, pp.657-681.

Reyneri E. (1997), Sociologia del mercato del lavoro, Il Mulino, Bologna.

Roy L., Domon G., Paquette S. (2008), “Settlement pattern, environmental factors and ethnic background on a southwestern Quebec frontier”, The Canadian Geographer, vol. 46,

n. 2, pp. 144-159.

Siqueira A.C.O. (2007), “Entrepreneurship and ethnicity: the role of human capital and family social capital”, Journal of developmental entrepreneurship, vol. 12, n. 1, pp. 31-46.

Shane S. (2003), A general theory of entrepreneurship: the individual-opportunity nexus, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.

Shapero A., Sokol L. (1982), “The social dimensions of entrepreneurship”, in Kent C.A., Sexton D.L., Vesper K.H. (eds), Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship, Englewood cliffs, NJ,

Prentice-Hall, pp. 72-90.

Takyi-Asiedu S. 1993), “The development of infrastructure for entrepreneurship”, Journal of Business Venturing, n. 8, pp. 211-230.

Valenzuela, A. (2001). “Day labourers as entrepreneurs?”, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 27, n. 2, pp. 335–352.

Vinogradov E., Gabelko M. (2010), “Entrepreneurship among Russian immigrants in Norway”, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, vol. 15, n. 4, pp. 461-479.

Waldinger R., Aldrich R., Ward R., (1990), Ethnic entrepreneurs. Immigrant business in industrial societies, Newbury Park: Sage.

Waldinger R., Ward R., Aldrich R. (1985), “Ethnic business and occupational mobility in advanced society”, Sociology, vol. 19, n. 4, pp. 586-597.

Wang Q., Li W. (2007), “Entrepreneurship, ethnicity and local contexts: Hispanic entrepreneurs in three U.S. southern metropolitan areas”, GeoJournal, n. 68, pp. 167-182.

Witt P. (2004), “Entrepreneurs’ networks and the success of start-ups”, Entrepreneurship & regional Development: an International Journal, vol. 16, n. 4, pp. 391-412.

Zahra S., Newbaum D. (1998), “Environmental adversity and the entrepreneurial activities of new ventures”, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, vol. 3, n. 2, pp. 123-148.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14596/pisb.163

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.